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Gerald Roche and CK Stuart. 2015. Introduction: Mapping the Monguor in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 5-15, 301-332. The thirteen contributions in this collection shed new light on the people, officially referred to in China as the Tu, but in the West more commonly known as the Monguor, who numbered 289,565 in 2010 (Poston and Xiong 2014:118), and who lived mostly in Qinghai and Gansu provinces. While considered in China to be a unitary minzu, or nationality, with a single history, language, and culture, and also assumed to be as much by Western scholars, a growing body of research is suggestive of the diversity within this group (Janhunen 2006). One indication of this diversity has been the proliferation of names used to describe localized populations of the Tu, including Karilang, Mongghul, Huzhu Mongghul, Huzhu Tu, Tianzhu Tu, Mangghuer, Gansu Mangghuer, Reb gong Tu, Dordo, Wutun Tu, Baoan Tu, Shaowa Tu, Mongolic Tu, Naringhuor Mongghuor, Datong Tu, and Halchighul Mongghul. Linguistic research has also revealed diversity among the Monguor, showing that their first languages may include Qinghai Chinese (Datong Tu) and other 'Creolized' Sinitic varieties (Wutun), as well as Mongolic (Mongghul, Mangghuer, Reb gong Tu) and Bodic varieties (Shaowa Tu) (Janhunen et al. 2007).

AHP 36 Cui Yongzhong, Zhang Dezu, and Du Changshun (Keith Dede, translator). 2015. The Origin of the Mongour in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 18-22, 301-332. This translated excerpt from the Comprehensive History of Qinghai examines two theories regarding the origin of the Monguor: the 'Mongol Theory' and the 'Tǔyùhún Theory'. The Mongol Theory, which is given most space in this text, suggests that the Monguor are descendants of thirteenth century Mongol soldiers. In contrast, the Tǔyùhún Theory suggests that the Monguor originate in an older population that migrated into the region in the third century CE. In addition to discussing these theories of Monguor origins, this text also provides various ethnonyms used to describe the Monguor in Chinese historical records, and gives extracts from Míng (1368-1644) and Qīng (1644-1911/12) dynasty records referring to the Monguor.

Limusishiden and Ha Mingzong. 2015. The Fourth Qinghai Provincial Tu (Monguor) Literature Forum in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 23-27, 301-332. Limusishiden describes the Fourth Qinghai Provincial Tu (Monguor) Literature Forum held 26-28 July 2012 in Weiyuan Town, Huzhu Tu Autonomous County, Haidong City, Qinghai Province, PR China; comments on the Forum; and suggests Monguor writers focus on writings that provide much detail about their own culture, people, family, and communities.

Limusishiden. 2015. Health and Illness Among the Mongghul in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 30-63,301-332. Personal Accounts of Health, Illness, and Healing Among the Mongghul of Huzhu Mongghul (Tu) Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province are given. These are followed by an examination of the causes of illness, medical practitioners, disease names and treatments, anatomical terms in the Mongghul language, preventative measures, narratives of the experiences of a Huzhu Mongghul doctor in Xining (capital of Qinghai Province), and a brief description of contemporary healthcare infrastructure in Huzhu County.

Limusishiden and CK Stuart. 2015. A Mongghul Communal Ritual: Diinquari in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 64-83, 301-332. Details of the Diinquari ritual are given for eight Mongghul villages in the Shdazi Mongghul area of Ledu Region, where this ritual is held annually from the twenty-fourth day of the tenth lunar month to the first day of the eleventh month, dates that correspond to the death of Tsongkhapa (twenty-fifth day of the tenth lunar month) as observed in the Tibetan Buddhist world. Ritual implements, guwa 'organizers', local deities, a schedule, ritual activities, attendants, and finances are described. Diinquari features elaborate religious ritual, veneration of local deities, and small-scale commercial activities on the part of local businessmen. It is also a time for locals to visit relatives who live in the village, friends to meet and chat, and for young people to find lovers.

Brenton Sullivan. 2015. Monastic Customaries and the Promotion of Dge lugs Scholasticism in A Mdo and Beyond in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 82-105, 301-332. The relationships that existed over multiple generations between the Wang incarnate lama lineage based at Dgon lung Monastery in Northeastern Tibet and various polities in Inner Mongolia are presented. Dgon lung Monastery in general, and the Wang Khutugtu in particular, were responsible for promoting and maintaining orthodox Dge lugs scholasticism and liturgy in Dpa' ris and beyond in Inner Mongolia. Particular attention is given to the customary composed by the Fourth Wang Khutugtu (1846-1906) for Eren Monastery in Inner Mongolia, which prescribed the system for nominating, testing, and awarding candidates for scholastic degrees.



Qi Huimin and Burgel RM Levy. 2015. Bilingualism in Song: The Rabbit Song of the Fulaan Nara Huzhu Mongghul in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 106-113, 301-332. Musical notation, and musical and linguistic characteristics of a Chinese-Huzhu Mongghul bilingual song in the Fulaan Nara dialect of Huzhu Mongghul, an endangered language of the Monguor (Tu) subgroup of the Mongolic language family, spoken in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in the People's Republic of China (Faehndrich 2007). The official Chinese name for the Monguor language is Tuzuyu. The Fulaan Nara dialect of Huzhu Mongghul is spoken in Wushi, Hongyazigou, and Songduo townships in Huzhu Mongghul Autonomous County and in Dala Township, Ledu County, which are all located in Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province.


Valère Rondelez (Xénia de Heering, translator). 2015. A Faithful Servant, Samt'andjimba (1816-1900) in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 116-138, 301-332. Samt'andjimba (1816?-1900) was a Mangghuer (Tu). Originally a Tibetan Buddhist monk, he converted to Christianity, and spent much of his life in the company of Christian missionaries. The Lazarists, Gabet and Huc, who traveled across Mongolia, Western China, and Tibet made him famous. This biographical article provides details of Samt'andjimba's life and work.



Grigorij Potanin (translated by Juha Janhunen with assistance from Wen Xiangcheng and Zhu Yongzhong). 2015. On the Shirongols in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 139-177, 301-332. This translated text provides the first account of the Sanchuan Mangghuer in a Western language, based on first-hand observations made by Grigorij Potanin in the winter of 1884-1885. The text includes information on ethnonyms, the distribution of the Mangghuer, their language, history and legends, dwellings, clothing, food, agriculture, weaving and the division of labor, general information on religion, Buddhism and the cult of territorial deities, shamanism, the consecration of a Zushi icon, rituals during drought and thunderstorms, annual community festivals, family customs and events, and other occasions.



Grigori Potanin (Xénia de Heering, translator). 2015. Mangghuer Folktales and Historical Narratives in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 178-188,301-332. Eleven folktales and historical narratives are presented that were collected by Grigori Potanin during his visit to the Sanchuan Region in 1884-1885. The folktales all appear to have been collected from males, mostly monks. One folktale deals with Wencheng Gongzhu, the Chinese bride of the Tibetan emperor, Srong btsan sgam po. One deals with the building of the Potala Palace in Lha sa, another with the founder of Dge lugs Buddhism, Tsong kha pa, and two more with the founding of Dmar gtsang Monastery, in A mdo. Two narratives relate events from the Chinese epic, Journey to the West, and four narrate events related to Li Jinwang, a Tang Dynasty general, and his adopted son, Li Cunxiao.




Aila Pullinen. 2015. Mangghuer Embroidery: A Vanishing Tradition in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 178-188, 301-332. Visits were undertaken in the years 2001 and 2002 to Minhe Hui and Mangghuer (Tu) Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province, China to research and document Mangghuer embroidery. This research is summarized in terms of the history of Mangghuer embroidery, tools and materials, embroidery techniques, embroidered items, and embroidery's significance in Mangghuer women's lives. The materials are illustrated with numerous photographs.



Blo bzang snyan grags (Lcags mo tshe ring, translator). 2015. The Origin of Gnyan Thog Village and the History of Its Chieftains in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 242-250, 301-332. This text, translated from Tibetan, details the migration of Mongol soldiers from the southern banks of the Yellow River to their descendants' current residence in Gnyan thog Village (Gnyan thog Township, Reb gong County, Rma lho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province) and also gives details of the hereditary succession of their leaders.




Tshe ring skyid. 2015. Rka gsar, a Monguor (Tu) Village in Reb Gong (Tongren): Communal Rituals and Everyday Life in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 251-175, 301-332. This article introduces Rka gsar, one of four villages in Reb gong (Rma lho [Huangnan] Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon [Qinghai] Province) where the Mongolic Bonan (aka Bao'an, M anikacha, D or skad) language is spoken. The text provides inform ation on the village's location and population; language; livelihood; clothing; and religion and communal festivals, focusing particularly on elements that distinguish Rka gsar from nearby Tibetan-speaking communities. The final section provides information about a significant event in recent local history – a landslide that occurred in 2009. A map and twenty-seven images are provided.




Tshe ring skyid. 2015. An Introduction to Rgya tshang ma, a Monguor (Tu) Village in Reb Gong (Tongren) in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 276-330. This article provides basic background information on Rgya tshang ma Village, one of three villages where the Ngandehua (Wutun) language is spoken in Reb gong (Rma lho [Huangnan] Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon [Qinghai] Province). Information presented includes population and location; housing; language; subsistence and income, focusing on the annual agricultural cycle; and religion and rituals, focusing particularly on communal rites. The text also includes one table, twenty photographs, and a narrative in Ngandehua, transcribed in Pinyin and translated into English.


Aila Pullinen. 2015. [[Mangghuer Embroidery A Vanishing Tradition]] in Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds). Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 178-188, 301-332. Visits were undertaken in the years 2001 and 2002 to Minhe Hui and Mangghuer (Tu) Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province, China to research and document Mangghuer embroidery. This research is summarized in terms of the history of Mangghuer embroidery, tools and materials, embroidery techniques, embroidered items, and embroidery's significance in Mangghuer women's lives. The materials are illustrated with numerous photographs.